Theoretical Foundation

What we mean by learning modes, skill-tags, interaction modes and regulations? 

Theoretical Foundation

Here in Flinga we are fans of technology-mediated, collaborative, inquiry-based and creative learning. The learning processes we promote are based on the activating and inquiry based learning models (1). Instead of just aiming towards knowledge acquisition we are looking to support activities that include social participation as well as the construction of new knowledge objects (2). Our aim is the development of new individual, social and cultural technology-mediated knowledge practices (3) from small groups to big faculties. 

However, our pedagogical designs are not limited to just collaborative practices. By creating pedagogical designs that aim to integrate self-regulated individual learning pathways with collaborative co-regulated (4) knowledge creation we are also aiming to support the development of various cognitive, metacognitive and practical skills defined also as 21st century skills (5). In this, we look forward to seeing learners everywhere exceeding themselves. We look forwards seeing the learners move beyond their individual limitations by building new knowledge practices mediated by each other, and the new tools provided.

In this our pedagogical designs are also taking into account the individual interest development (6) underlying meaningful learning.

References

1 Lonka, K. (2012). Engaging Learning Environments for the future-The 2012 Elizabeth W. Stone Lecture. The Road to Information Literacy–Librarians as facilitators of learning, 15-29.

Lonka, K., & Ketonen, E. (2012). How to make a lecture course an engaging learning experience?. Studies for the learning society, 2(2-3), 63-74.

2 Paavola, S., Lipponen, L., & Hakkarainen, K. (2004). Models of innovative knowledge communities and three metaphors of learning. Review of educational research, 74(4), 557-576.

Hakkarainen, K. P., Palonen, T., Paavola, S., & Lehtinen, E. (2004). Communities of networked expertise: Professional and educational perspectives. Elsevier: Oxford, UK.

3 Hakkarainen, K. (2009). A knowledge-practice perspective on technology-mediated learning. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 4(2), 213-231.

4 Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (Eds.), (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance. Taylor & Francis.

Hadwin, A. F., Järvelä, S., & Miller, M. (2011). Self-regulated, co-regulated, and socially shared regulation of learning. Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance, 30, 65-84.

5 Binkley, M., Erstad, O., Herman, J., Raizen, S., Ripley, M., Miller-Ricci, M., & Rumble, M. (2012). Defining Twenty-First Century Skills. Teoksessa P. Griffin, B. McGaw, & E. Care (toim.), Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills (s.17-66). New York: Springer Publishing.

6 Hidi, S., & Renninger, K. A. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational psychologist, 41(2), 111-127.

Drawing from our theoretical background our pedagogical designs are focused around some key concepts affecting the learning situation: the mode of interaction, the mode of regulation, and the levels of learning. These key concepts are tools used to guide the organising of different learning activities within a learning process. They do not exclude each other, in most situations we all, as learners, fluctuate back and forth. First. we look into the interaction mode, there is a difference in whether the learning situation is a mass lecture or simply individual studying. We point in our designs whether the specific activity is designed for which type of interaction situation. These can of course, be debated. These interaction modes are not essentially fixed to a certain time and space, therefore most sessions can very well also be organized online.

Interaction modes

  • Mass lecture

    Mass lecture refers to a traditional lecture session with more than 40 participants and organized in a lecture hall. Teacher is present and in charge of the activities.

  • Small group lecture

    Small group lecture refers to a lecture session with less than 40 participants and can be arranged in a smaller lecture hall or a conference room etc.Teacher is present and in charge of the activities. More interaction than in mass lecture.

  • Collaborative teamwork

    Collaborative teamwork refers to students work in a team. It can be organized as face-to-face sessions in open locations or even as distance learning. Teacher presence is not required.

  • Individual studying

    Individual studying refers to students individual work either during organized sessions or during undesignated self-study time. Includes also virtual learning environments.

From the we move on to the regulation of learning activities in the situation. Different kinds of learning situations require and also enable different types of regulation. The requirements of the regulation in different learning activities move from internally regulated learning to shared, collaborative regulation and back. Sometimes even externally regulated learning can do the trick. We use these modes of regulation to pinpoint which is the preferred regulation that should be emphasized in the activity, in order to reach the best outcomes.

Regulation modes

  • External regulation

    By external regulation we refer to a learning situation where the control over learning aims, assignments and outcomes is controlled by the teacher or by rules. This provides the least autonomy for the students.

  • Shared regulation

    By shared regulation we refer to a learning situation, where the regulation of the learning process, i.e. decisions of its aims and preferred outcomes is shared between the teacher and the students or between the students in a smaller group. In co-regulated learning processes shared autonomy is practiced and social relatedness is experienced.

  • Internal regulation

    By internal regulation we refer to a learning situation where the control over the learning process is given to the learner themselves, sometimes with externally regulated aims, but often with no strict restrictions. Autonomy over the learning process is strong and self-regulation skills are practiced and developed.

References

Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (Eds.), (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance. Taylor & Francis.

Hadwin, A. F., Järvelä, S., & Miller, M. (2011). Self-regulated, co-regulated, and socially shared regulation of learning. Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance, 30, 65-84.

From regulation we move to the different levels of learning in our designs. As said, we do not simply promote learning as knowledge acquisition, even though it is a prerequisite for further learning. Our designs and software enables, but also challenges, learners to co-create knowledge in dialogue and further, as external, visualised new knowledge objects. We believe, that the puzzles in today’s society cannot be solved by simply memorizing what other people already know, but creating new ideas and innovations. We use these learning modes in our designs to outline the role of knowledge in the particular activity, even though most activities include them all in some degree.

Learning modes

  • Knowledge acquisition

    When viewing learning knowledge acquisition, the mind of the learner is seen as kind of container of knowledge, and learning is a process that fills the container, implanting knowledge there.

  • Participation

    Learning as participation focuses on learning as a process of participation in various social and cultural practices and shared learning activities. Knowing and competence are distributed over both the learner and their environments.

  • Knowledge creation

    Learning as knowledge creation emphasizesthe aspect of collective knowledge creation for developing shared objects of activity i.e. Flinga -sessions, texts, presentations or other artefacts.

References

Paavola, S., Lipponen, L., & Hakkarainen, K. (2004). Models of innovative knowledge communities and three metaphors of learning. Review of educational research, 74(4), 557-576.

Hakkarainen, K. P., Palonen, T., Paavola, S., & Lehtinen, E. (2004). Communities of networked expertise: Professional and educational perspectives. Elsevier: Oxford, UK.

  • Name
  • Charts

    In the diagram below is visualised how the regulation and level of learning is distributed in the designed activity. For instance, in the example the activity is designed to promote shared regulation and participation the most. However, some knowledge creation as well as internal regulation are also present.

Our pedagogical designs integrating self-regulated individual learning pathways with collaborative co-regulated knowledge creation are supporting the development of various cognitive, metacognitive and practical skills sometimes labeled as 21st century skills. These include, but are not limited to, the skills mentioned below. We use these skills as tags and tag the learning activities with the skills that we feel are the most relevant.

21st century skills associated with Flinga

- Creativity and innovation

- Critical thinking, problem solving, decision making

- Learning to learn, metacognition

- Communication

- Collaboration (teamwork)

- Information literacy

- ICT literacy

References

Binkley, M., Erstad, O., Herman, J., Raizen, S., Ripley, M., Miller-Ricci, M., & Rumble, M. (2012). Defining Twenty-First Century Skills. Teoksessa P. Griffin, B. McGaw, & E. Care (toim.), Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills (s.17-66). New York: Springer Publishing.

Authors

  • Lauri Hietajärvi

    Lauri Hietajärvi is a researcher and a learning enthusiast, focused on interest and motivation in learning. He’s also a former class teacher with experience in facilitating technology-mediated collaborative learning processes from elementary school and higher education.


  • Lauri Vaara

    Lauri Vaara is a researcher and learning environment specialist. His expertise lies in the detailed pedagogical and corresponding physical design of hybrid learning environments. He’s a versatile educator in the field of educational psychology and an pedagogical ICT-expert.


  • Ilari Raja

    Ilari is a CEO and co-founder of Nordtouch. He’s passionate about user-centered design, UX and data visualization. He has strong understanding about collaborative learning tools.